Packet by Henry Gorman, Thomas Littrell, Benji Nguyen, & Chris Romero






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Chicago Open 2010

Packet by Henry Gorman, Thomas Littrell, Benji Nguyen, & Chris Romero

1. This deity was worshipped in the festival of Camay, during which offerings were thrown into a river in the hopes that they would find their way to this god. In one story, this god created a race of giants by breathing into large stones, but irritated with the stupidity of his initial creations, broke them and replaced them with human-sized people. In another story, this figure and two sons traveled North, Northeast, and Northwest, named all the plants, and told the humans which were cultivable and edible, after which they departed by crossing the ocean. This god’s name meant “Sea Foam,” and commoners were not allowed to say it. Sometimes syncretized with the god Pachacamac, the worship of this deity may derive from the worship of Thunupa as practiced by the Aymara. The chief god of the Quechua pantheon, for ten points, name this father of Inti and Inca creator god.

ANSWER: Inca Viracocha
2. This man began his military career under Postumius Tubertus, and Marcus Manlius Capitolinus rebelled against this man, which resulted in a law forbidding patricians from having homes on the Capitoline hill. During a siege, this man introduced the notion of a paid army, and his other reforms included his acceptance of the Licinian-Sextian laws. This man ended the siege of Falerium when he refused to take hostage boys who had been led to him by their teacher. Lucius Apuleius forced this man into exile, and he was recalled only after Pontius Cominius scaled the Capitoline hill, and, in the process, gave the Gauls an idea for an attack that would be foiled by some watchful geese. This man captured another city after the waters of the Alban lake were diverted, and, in addition to seizing Veii, this man forced the Gauls under Brennus out of Rome after their victory at Allia. For ten points, name this man grouped with Themistocles in Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, who is known as the second founder of Rome.

ANSWER: Marcus Furius Camillus
3. One character in this work pretends to be a near-deaf hillbilly before escaping on a horse. Shortly after his retreat, Loosh uncovers a buried chest of silver and leaves with his wife Philadelphy. In one section of this work, an old woman is sent to acquire horses from a gang known as Grumby’s Independents, leading to her being shot. That section of this novel is entitled “Reposte in Tertio.” At the end of this work, the protagonist is shot twice when he confronts Ben Redmond unarmed, after which he returns home to find a sprig of verbana left by his love interest, Drusilla. Featuring such characters as Ab Snopes and Colonel Sartoris, who appears in some of this author’s works, for 10 points, name this series of seven episodes that follows Granny, Ringo, and Bayard’s lives in the Confederacy, written by William Faulkner.

ANSWER: The Unvanquished
In clinical trials, Goodpasture’s syndrome was found to result from a common treatment for this disease called D-penicillamine, which can also cause fatal withdrawal symptoms if treatment is discontinued. Menke’s syndrome, the most notable symptom of which is extremely brittle and wiry hair, results from a mutation in a gene closely related to the one that is mutated in sufferers of this disease. Those genes encode a P-type ATPases. People with this disease have low ceruloplasmin levels and exhibit renal tubular acidosis due to an inability to reabsorb bicarbonate. Psychosis and depression occur in sufferers of this disease, but splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and fulminant hepatitis are more common symptoms. Abnormal depositions in Descemet’s membrane create one of the most notable signs of this disease, dark circles around the iris called Kayser-Fleischer rings. For 10 points, name this genetic disorder in which copper accumulates primarily in the liver and brain, as well as in other tissues.
ANSWER: Wilson’s disease [or hepatolenticular degeneration]
In response to a paper by Stephen Schiffer titled “Ceteris Paribus Laws,” this thinker wrote a paper which distinguished “hedged” laws from “strict” ones titled “You Can Fool Some of the People All of the Time, Everything Else Being Equal.” Another work of this thinker draws on his joint work with Pylyshyn to classify such ideas as “compiled transducers,” into a “functional taxonomy of cognitive mechanisms.” An appendix to one book by this philosopher asks “why are we so good at catching cheaters?” and suggests that the answer is because we reason about different types of sentences with different parts of our mind; that book was written partly in response to Stephen Pinker and is titled The Mind Doesn’t Work that Way. This philosopher’s most famous work distinguishes between logical and physiological reductionism and argues that a private language must exist; that work advances this thinker’s “representational theory of mind.” For ten points, identify this philosopher who wrote The Modular Mind and The Language of Thought.
ANSWER: Jerry Fodor

6. The letters in chapters 8 and 25 of this work were based on its author's own correspondence with his family, which resulted in this work only being published posthumously.This work includes a chapter about the Simeonite movement in which it is mentioned that among the works that attract the attention of the main character are Bishop Colenso's Criticism on the Pentateuch and Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species. The main character of this work is swindled out of his inheritance from his grandfather by his friend Pryer, and marries the alcoholic Ellen, who is later revealed to have had an illegitimate child with the coachman John. Though ordained as a minister at Cambridge, after inheriting his aunt Alethea's trust fund of seventy thousand pounds, this work's protagonist becomes a writer. Mr. Overton relays the narrative of this novel as if from the papers of the central family, which includes members such as George, Christina, and Theobald. Centering primarily on Ernest Pontifex, for ten points, identify this most famous novel of Samuel Butler.

ANSWER: The Way of All Flesh
7. In one satirical work centered on this character, the man currently occupying this character's most notable office was depicted as being possessed by aliens, who were members of an invasion force led by his wife. In that same work, this man lets himself catch on fire in order to avenge the defeat of another of this man's successors, who attempted to commit suicide afterward, at the hands of Vladimir Putin. However, he later teams up with Putin, as well as Yulia Tymoshenko, George H.W. Bush, and Pope Benedict the XVI to do battle with Joseph Mengele, Richard Wagner, Otto Skorzeny, and Adolf Hitler to save humanity. In that same work, he pilots a fighter jet to destroy a Taepodong missile launched by a petulant Kim Jong-Il, who he just defeated in a game of mahjong using his “rising sun” finishing move. For 10 points, identity this former LDP prime minister of Japan, known for agitating China with his visits to the Yasukuni shrine and for being an aggressive reformist.
ANSWER: Koizumi Junichiro
8. Roy Harris wrote a three movement composition in this genre, which opens with a passacaglia and closes with a fugue. Alfred Schittke wrote one on the death of his wife, and that work uses a waltz on the BACH theme and features a passacaglia in the finale, while Nikolai Medtner’s only work in this genre was in C major and was published posthumously. A prelude marked Lento opens Shostakovich’s venture in G minor, and the main theme of the allegro ma non troppo last movement combines with the main theme from the Allegro Brillante first movement for a double fugue finale in Robert Schumann’s work in E-flat major. One of these works in A major has a fourth movement consisting of variations on the composer’s Lied Die Forelle. For 10 points, identify this type of composition, exemplified by Schubert’s, which is nicknamed “Trout.”
ANSWER: Piano quintet
9. This conflict forms the background for a work in which the schemes of lawyer Senecca Newcome are foiled and which is part of a trilogy that includes Satanstoe and The Chainbearer. This conflict helped prompt Thomas Devyr to create the National Reform Movement, and military action during this conflict saw Timothy Corbin arrest David Squires in an action starting at Moses Earle’s farm on Dingle hill. Dr. Smith Boughton was a leader of one faction in this conflict, while other leaders were known by names like Redjacket and Bluebeard, and one side in this conflict was known as the “calicos.” Participants in this conflict, against which Fennimore Cooper set his Littlepage Papers, were likened by William Cullen Bryant’s Evening Post to the South Carolina nullifiers, and this conflict ended after the murder of Osman Steele led governor Silas Wright to intervene. For ten points, name this conflict beginning with the death of Stephen Van Rensselaer III in which New York farmers opposed the namesake payment imposed on them by their patroons.

ANSWER: Anti-Rent War
10. This experiment made a more detailed measurement of the same signal as the RELIKT-1 experiment, which had operated in a band centered on 37 GHz. One instrument utilized during this experiment mapped the absolute sky brightness in 10 wavelength bands, while another instrument was a differential radiometer, whose measurements would later be repeated by experiments such as TopHat and BOOMERanG. In addition to the DMR and DIRBE, another instrument using in this experiment was the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which demonstrated that a certain phenomenon was a black body with temperature of about 2.7 Kelvin. Succeeded by the WMAP satellite, for ten points, identify this satellite experiment which measured the spectrum and the small-scale anisotropy of the CMB, and won a Physics Nobel in 2006 for George Smoot and John Mather.

ANSWER: Cosmic Background Explorer
11. This man died of natural causes shortly after invading Bavaria, playing tennis on the duke’s courts, and plundering his library. This ruler’s eldest daughter, Elisabeth, was a correspondent of Rene Descartes and the dedicatee of the work Passions of the Soul while another daughter was Sophia, the heiress presumptive to the British throne and founder of the Hanoverian Dynasty. After being declared an outlaw, this man’s privileges were transferred to Maximillian I, duke of Bavaria, who proceeded to annex this man’s lands. Via the Treaty of Ulm, the Union of Auhausen withdrew support for him and ended his claim to the throne. The deposition of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II allowed his ascension to the Wittelsbach throne, but the defeat of Christian of Anhalt forces by the Count of Tilly near Prague assured his short reign. For 10 points, name this Elector Palatine whose short reign as King of Bohemia was ended at the Battle of White Mountain, leading him to be known as the Winter King.

ANSWER: Frederick V Elector Palatine or Frederick I King of Bohemia
12. One of the epigrams to this work, from The Charterhouse of Parma, alerts the reader that “we are about to speak of ugly matters.” One character in this work asks the woman he loves four times whether a verse he has just read her is beautiful. An elderly character in this work insists that a red-faced teenager answer the question of what he would write “if a big German newspaper gave you personally two lines of space.” Another character in this work with a “famously beautiful throat” entertains a crowd by performing parodies of television commercials and sprinkles gasoline out of a laundry detergent bottle while onstage. That woman, Funda Eser, is married to Sunay Zaim, who, as the puppet of Z Demirkol, arranges for soldiers to fire from the stage into the audience and negotiates with the protagonist for the release of the Islamist radical Blue. For 10 points, Ipek agrees to remove her headscarf during a performance of The Spanish Tragedy in what novel about the poet Ka’s trip to Kars, written by Orhan Pamuk?

ANSWER: Snow
13. Two putti holdings tablets with the inscription "Numine afflatur" flank a personification of Poetry in one of the ceiling tondos at this location. A figure with a lion in her lap holds an oak branch representing the commissioner's family in a lunette above depictions of Justinian Presenting the Pandects to Trebonianus and Gregory IX Approving the Decretals. One fresco at this location shows Sappho holding a scroll bearing her name as Apollo plays the lira da braccio amongst nine muses and eighteen poets. Savanorola, Dante, and Sixtus IV debate the eucharist in another work at this location, which, like the Stanza di Eliodoro, is amongst the apartments commissioned to be frescoed by Julius II. Containing La Disputa and The School of Athens, for 10 points, name this room in the Vatican Palace painted by Raphael and his workshop.

ANSWER: Stanza della Segnatura [prompt on Raphael Rooms; prompt on Vatican Palace]
14. One section of this work notes that transport of goods by sea involves at least two more transactions than those going by land, so there is a boundary where the costs become equal and that, for British and German coal, this line is somewhere in Lombardy. Another section of this work uses Wellington’s campaign from Torres Vedras in the Peninsular War as an example of what future wars might look like, while the signing of the Treaty of Bjorko partially justified this work’s fears. This work begins by describing the bifurcation of central Asia into steppe and forest and notes that there are no great rivers in the region to facilitate transportation outside of it. Positing that European culture has been shaped by successive invasions by tribes from the steppes, this work concludes with a warning about possible alliances between Germany and Russia. More famous for its division of the world into inner and outer crescents, for ten points, name this work that posits that historical forces revolve around a heartland region now controlled by Russia, a work by H. J. Mackinder.

ANSWER: The Geographical Pivot of History
15. One reaction to accomplish this forms a namesake thiohydroxamic ester and either uses tert-butyl mercaptan or chloroform; that reaction is named for Barton. Another requires a beta- electron withdrawing group and generally employs lithium chloride in DMSO. That ionic reaction named for Krapcho contrasts with the believed radical pathway involved with the treatment with bromine and tetrachloromethane of silver salts, a reaction named for Hunsdiecker. This reaction is the final step in the pyridine-employing Doebner modification of the Knoevenagel reaction and of the malonic ester synthesis of cyclic carboxylic acids, where it occurs upon the addition of aqueous acid and heat. This operation turns pyruvate into acetyl-CoA in the citric acid cycle. For 10 points, name this reaction that often features the loss of carbon dioxide, wherein a COOH group departs.

ANSWER:
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