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V. EXTENSIONS


  • Ethnographies: interview community members with cultural ties

  • Drama

  • Cooking

  • Field trip to archaeological site

  • Artists-in-residence



VI. CLOSURE


  • Home-school connections

  • Processing inquiry and observation charts

  • Class big book

  • Summary letters to parents and teachers

  • Reports: power point presentations, 3-dimensional models, murals

  • Assessments: conventional, individual, performance, team


Project GLAD

Forest Grove School District

Ancient American Technology: Aztec, Inca, Maya

Demo Daily Lesson Plan




DAY 1



FOCUS/MOTIVATION


  • Signal word “technology”

  • Awards: archaeologist buttons, vocabulary certificates

  • Big book Technology That Made America Great

  • Observation charts

  • Inquiry chart


INPUT


  • Pictorial input : map of indigenous migration, culture location, European arrival

  • Chant “Archaeologist Bugaloo”

  • Read-aloud Weslandia


GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE


  • Chant “Archaeologist Bugaloo”

  • T-chart on “respect”

  • Cooperative picture file activity: choose most archaeologically interesting picture

  • Exploration report: newly discovered Inca tomb


READING/WRITING


  • Learning logs: what you want to learn about Aztec, Inca Maya technology

  • Writer’s workshop

    • mini-lesson on types of writing, planning page

    • author’s chair


CLOSURE


  • Home-school connection: what archaeologist would learn about student’s family’s way of life



DAY 2



FOCUS/MOTIVATION


  • Signal word “anthropology”

  • Awards: anthropologist notebooks


INPUT


  • Pictorial input of Aztec capital Tenochtitlán

  • Chant “I Know a City” – sketch and highlight

  • Graphic organizer timeline of Ancient American civilization and Europe, Africa, Asia

  • Narrative input Angela’s Dream

  • Chant “I’m a Mayan” – invent motions


GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE


  • Sharing Home-school connection in teams

  • Chant “I Know a City” – sketch and highlight

  • Chant “I’m a Mayan” – invent motions

  • Cognitive content dictionary


READING/WRITING


  • Learning logs: most interesting part of city

  • Cognitive content dictionary

  • Response journals

  • Writers’ workshop

- mini-lesson: sketching a story map

- author’s chair
CLOSURE


  • Home-school connection: tell how family member learned something passed down traditionally in the family



DAY 3



FOCUS/MOTIVATION


  • Signal word “agronomy”

  • Awards: author’s notebooks

  • Current events: indigenous rights in Chiapas


INPUT


  • Comparative input chart: Aztec, Inca, Maya agronomy

  • Chant “Plant Scientists Here, Plant Scientists There”

  • Chant “Inca Soundoff”

  • Expert groups : more on Aztec and Maya agronomy


GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE


  • T-chart revisited

  • Team tasks: travel poster on visiting ruins, exploration report, map pictorial, retelling of narrative input

  • Sharing of expert group information for class process grid

  • Sharing of individual process grid information

  • Vocabulary matching from comparative input


READING/WRITING


  • Expert groups

  • Reading the walls

  • Free reading of research library

  • Vocabulary matching from comparative input


CLOSURE


    • Home-school connection: interview on plant-raising practices



DAY 4



FOCUS/MOTIVATION


  • Signal word “indigenous”

  • Team points goal-setting

  • Modern Inca music


INPUT


  • Listen and sketch Tonight is Carnival


GUIDED ORAL PRACTICE


  • Vocabulary match from chants and input charts

  • Chant “Spelling? No Problem!”

  • Team tasks: poetry frame, mind map, timeline, “Important Book” page

  • Sentence patterning chart

  • Team presentation of chants


READING/WRITING


  • Cooperative strip paragraph writing, revising, editing

  • Directed reading/thinking activity: Inca achievements

  • Sentence patterning chart

  • Ear-to-ear reading of poetry booklets

  • Summary letter to parents

  • Listen and sketch Tonight is Carnival


CLOSURE


  • Process inquiry chart

  • Summary letter to parents

  • Song “Thanks a Lot

  • Response journal assignment


TECHNOLOGY THAT MADE AMERICA GREAT

By Laura Curry and Laura Mannen-Martínez
All human civilizations strive to improve their way of life by understanding and controlling their environment.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, indigenous civilizations on the American continents were in many ways more advanced than those in Asia or Europe. The Aztec empire flourished in what is now central Mexico, the Inca territory extended through most of western South America, and the Maya ruled an area that covers much of present-day Central America and parts of southern Mexico.
Their European conquerors attempted to destroy these civilizations, yet quite a lot is still known. We have learned about the Aztecs, Incas and Mayas through investigation of ancient sites and artifacts, and through observation of the traditional lifestyle of their descendants.
Archaeological and anthropological evidence provide us with much information about how these civilizations utilized technology to improve their way of life.
The Aztecs improved their way of life through agricultural technology and plant science.
On Lake Texcoco, they constructed fertile farm plots and an ingenious system of aqueducts, reservoirs and causeways. They domesticated many important food crops, such as corn, beans, tomatoes, peanuts and squash, and could prepare remedies from more than 300 medicinal plants. Using the bark of amate fig trees, they perfected a paper-making process, producing 500,000 sheets of paper a year. At the height of their civilization in 1500 AD, Aztec agricultural knowledge benefited five million people throughout the empire.
Sixty per cent of the food crops grown in the world today were domesticated by indigenous Americans, greatly improving our way of life.
The Incas improved their way of life by architecture and engineering.
For travel through their vast empire, the Incas laid ten thousand miles of roadways, with rest stops and food storehouses every twenty-five miles. They constructed earthquake-resistant buildings and terraces of huge stones precisely fitted together without mortar. Two hundred foot-long suspension bridges stretched across deep canyons in their mountainous environment. Rivers were diverted for irrigation systems using methods unknown in Europe until 800 years later. In the central city of Cuzco, professional architects worked with clay models, designing agricultural and road improvements to be used throughout the empire.
Many of the structures produced by Inca technology are still in use, improving the lives of South American people today.
The Mayas were able to understand and control their environment through mathematics and astronomy.
They built astronomical observatories and instruments, allowing them to calculate the cycles of the sun, moon and some planets with extreme accuracy. They used this information for agricultural and religious planning, and to construct temples that were astronomically aligned. Their mathematicians used place value and zero in their calculations centuries before these concepts were understood in Europe. Mayan mathematicians and astronomers were often priests as well, because of the power and esteem their knowledge gave them.
Archaeologists continue to study the glyphs that recorded Mayan mathematics and astronomy, in an effort to decipher more ancient knowledge that could contribute to today’s understanding of our environment.
When Europeans arrived in the Americas, they found civilizations with advanced understanding and control of their environment. The Aztecs, Incas and Mayas had developed many technologies for improving their way of life, and were already making America great.
Who knows what would have happened if they had been allowed to continue?


TECHNOLOGY THAT MADE AMERICA GREAT

By Laura Curry and Laura Mannen-Martínez
All human civilizations strive to improve their way of life by understanding and controlling their environment.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, indigenous civilizations on the American continents were in many ways more advanced than those in Asia or Europe. The Aztec empire flourished in what is now central Mexico, the Inca territory extended through most of western South America, and the Maya ruled an area that covers much of present-day Central America and parts of southern Mexico.
Their European conquerors attempted to destroy these civilizations, yet quite a lot is still known. We have learned about the Aztecs, Incas and Mayas through investigation of ancient sites and artifacts, and through observation of the traditional lifestyle of their descendants.
Archaeological and anthropological evidence provide us with much information about how these civilizations utilized technology to improve their way of life.
The Aztecs improved their way of life through agricultural technology and plant science.
On Lake Texcoco, they constructed fertile farm plots and an ingenious system of aqueducts, reservoirs and causeways. They domesticated many important food crops, such as corn, beans, tomatoes, peanuts and squash, and could prepare remedies from more than 300 medicinal plants. Using the bark of amate fig trees, they perfected a paper-making process, producing 500,000 sheets of paper a year. At the height of their civilization in 1500 AD, Aztec agricultural knowledge benefited five million people throughout the empire.
Sixty per cent of the food crops grown in the world today were domesticated by indigenous Americans, greatly improving our way of life.
The Incas improved their way of life by architecture and engineering.
For travel through their vast empire, the Incas laid ten thousand miles of roadways, with rest stops and food storehouses every twenty-five miles. They constructed earthquake-resistant buildings and terraces of huge stones precisely fitted together without mortar. Two hundred foot-long suspension bridges stretched across deep canyons in their mountainous environment. Rivers were diverted for irrigation systems using methods unknown in Europe until 800 years later. In the central city of Cuzco, professional architects worked with clay models, designing agricultural and road improvements to be used throughout the empire.
Many of the structures produced by Inca technology are still in use, improving the lives of South American people today.

The Mayas were able to understand and control their environment through mathematics and astronomy.
They built astronomical observatories and instruments, allowing them to calculate the cycles of the sun, moon and some planets with extreme accuracy. They used this information for agricultural and religious planning, and to construct temples that were astronomically aligned. Their mathematicians used place value and zero in their calculations centuries before these concepts were understood in Europe. Mayan mathematicians and astronomers were often priests as well, because of the power and esteem their knowledge gave them.
Archaeologists continue to study the glyphs that recorded Mayan mathematics and astronomy, in an effort to decipher more ancient knowledge that could contribute to today’s understanding of our environment.
When Europeans arrived in the Americas, they found civilizations with advanced understanding and control of their environment. The Aztecs, Incas and Mayas had developed many technologies for improving their way of life, and were already making America great.
Who knows what would have happened if they had been allowed to continue?

THE INCAS’ ACHIEVEMENTS

adapted from The Incas, by Barbara L. Beck

Roads

At the height of their empire, the Incas’ road system covered nearly 10,000 miles. There were two main highways, with a network of roads that criss-crossed between the two major ones. The coastal highway extended for 2520 miles, and the mountain highway ran along the ridges of the Andes Mountains for 3250 miles.
Road work crews were supervised by government engineers from the capital city of Cuzco. Some sections of road were as wide as 15 feet, and paved with stones so closely fitted that not even a knife blade could pass between them. In other places, roads were as narrow as 3 feet, and cut through solid rock. Along the highways were tampus, rest stations conveniently placed a day’s journey apart. Beside the tampus were government storehouses with enough supplies for an army of 25,000 men.

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