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16. This polity entered a succession crisis after its forces were defeated at the Battle of Mbwila, and for a brief time its abandoned capital was held by a sect called the Antonians, who wanted to establish a kingdom there under the rule of Beatriz Kimpa Vita. According to legend, this polity has its roots in a dynasty from Mpemba Kasi. The tombs of that dynasty at Nsi Kwilu were said to be so holy that looking on them was fatal. The most fundamental administrative unit of this polity were villages, known as vata, which were grouped into larger units called wene, ruled from larger towns called mbanzas. This polity's senior officials, including the rulers of Mbata, Vunda, and Soyo, elected its kings. The first ruler of this polity, Lukeni Iua Nimi, conqured Mwene Kabunga and founded the polity's capital there. The Portuguese explorer Diego Cao brought Christianity to this polity, and its ruler Afonso I, became its first Christian king. For ten points, identify this slave-trading kingdom kingdom that was based in Soutwestern Africa and which gave its name to an African river.
17. Througouht this work, numerous references are made to Ferdinand Freiligrath's poem "The Moorish Prince," and in its preface, its author notes that it was produced in a time when many rotten apples were being thrown at him. In this work's fifth section, the title character asks "Haven't many beavers proven/ excellent in hydrostatics," and advises his children to "never trust a monster that is wearing trousers!" At the end of this work, one character is lauded as the "Lafayette for Pyreneesians" after killing the title character, while the narrator recalls Schiller's dictum that "What in song shall live eternal/ That must perish in this life." Among the allusions to the political situation in Europe in this poem is the satirization of Prince Felix Lichnowski, a Carlist collaborator, as "Schnapphahnski," while the gothic novel is mocked in this poem through the characters of Uraka and her son Laskaro. As this poem opens, the title beast is depicted dancing with Mumma, but in the second section he escapes and retreats to the dale of Ronceval, where his cave is located. Subtitled "A Midsummer Night's Dream," for ten points, identify this long poem framed as a hunt for the titular bear and written by Heinrich Heine.
ANSWER: Atta Troll
18. All the performers must wear nondescript robes in this man’s Hermit Songs, while Indian, Egyptian, and Asian mythologies and seduction rituals inspired his “battle of the sexes” called Hidden Rites. He used Garcia Lorca’s The House of Bernarda Alba as source material for his classical ballet Feast of Ashes, and recently Badgley Mischka has designed the uniforms used by the group named for him. One of his works features triangles of performers in rainbow colored robes, while works in his group’s repertory include Double Exposure and Divining, both created by Judith Jamison. Besides Memoria, he created his namesake company after creating Blues Suite, while another work has a duet named “Fix Me Jesus” in its first section, “Pilgrim of Sorrow”, while the “Yellow” section in its final movement is set at a Baptist church. For 10 points, identify this man who created Revelations, an African-American choreographer.
ANSWER: Alvin Ailey
19. This statement can be used to prove that a sequence of integers with general term xn where n = ab + 1 contains at least one monotonic sequence with a + 1 terms, a specific case of Dilworth’s Lemma. In addition to the Erdos-Szekeres Theorem, this statement is used to prove a regularity test for a language involving the ability to insert an arbitrary number of characters into a string, the pumping lemma. This statement forms the basis of radix sort, while the Fubini principle states that, if there is an average of x packets in each one, at least one of this principle’s namesake structures must have more than x items. For ten points, name this principle that informally states that given x containers and more than x objects to place into those containers, one container must have more than one object, which was first stated by Dirichlet.
ANSWER: Pigeonhole Principle [accept Dirichlet’s Box Principle before “For ten points”]
20. This thinker’s theory of the elements is contained in his Ars scientiae, or “The Tree of Science,” while in another work, this theologian argued that anyone could come to see the truth of Christianity through intense contemplation, and Nicholas of Cusa would later adapt many of the ideas set forth in this man’s Book of Intellectual Ascent and Decline. In addition to writing the Libre del Contemplacio en Deu, this man argued that Muslims were close to Christians than other non-believers because they accept the virgin birth of Mary. This man made that argument in a theological novel entitled Blanquerna, which ends with a section entitled the “Book of the Lover and Beloved,” which contains 365 aphorisms partially lifted from al-Ghazali. The author of Disputatio clerici et Raymundi phantastici, for ten points, identify this 13th century Christian mystic from Catalonia who styled himself Christianus Arabicus.
ANSWER: Ramon [or Raymond] Lull
1. They can be found using Boruvka’s Algorithm. For ten points:
 Name these entities with the least total weight of a certain type of connection in a weighted, connected graph that provide near solutions to the traveling salesman problem.
ANSWER: Minimum Spanning Tree
 This method for finding a minimum spanning tree, an expansion of Kruskal’s Algorithm, involves picking an arbitrary point on the graph and moving along the shortest edge to the next vertex with the condition that no loops can be created.
ANSWER: Prim-Jarnik Algorithm
 Prim’s algorithm can utilize this data structure, invented by Fredman and Tarjan, which has its roots form a doubly-linked list by having each node point to its left and right siblings, its parent, and its child node. This allows the algorith to run in big-O of m plus n log n time.
ANSWER: Fibonacci Heap
2. Answer some things about twentieth century Argentina. For ten points each:
 This event saw between ten and twenty-four thousand young activists abducted, tortured, and murdered in an attempt to stamp out Argentina’s militant Left.
ANSWER: Dirty War
 This man was president of Argentina during the Dirty War having gained the position after the ouster of Maria Estela Peron.
ANSWER: Jorge Rafael Videla
 This group named for the space where the congregated protested the Dirty War by holding up pictures of their ‘disappeared’ relatives.
ANSWER: Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
3. The academic satire has a long and proud tradition in American literature. Answer some questions about it, for ten points each:
 In this Saul Bellow novel, the title character, Albert Corde, and his wife Minna travel to Bucharest while flashbacks recount a murder trial involving a student at Corde’s Chicago university.
ANSWER: The Dean’s December
 Set at Benton College, of which “half the campus was designed by Bottom the Weaver, half by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe,” this academic satire is the only novel by Randall Jarrell.
ANSWER: Pictures from an Institution
 This writer painted a satirical picture of the life of an English professor in Good as Gold, but you may know him better for a novel about some dude named John Yossarian.
ANSWER: Joseph Heller
4. For ten points each, answer some questions about one of the branches of the Mabinogion:
 Gwyddyon, the nephew of Math, provoked a war with Pryderi, the lord of Dyffed, when, pretending to be a bard, he traded subsequently disappearing horses and greyhounds for special animals of this sort from the otherworld.
 Math was obliged to keep his feet in the lap of a vigin during peacetime. After the war with Pryderi, he discovered that his previous virgin no longer was suitable for the job, and Gwyddyon suggested this woman to replace her. She was a bit irritated when Math checked her virginity and she promptly bore two children.
 One of Aranrhod's sons was this boy, who she cursed to have no name or arms until she gave them to him. He obtained them anyway. He could not be killed indoors or outdoors, on land or on water, on horse or on foot.
Answer: Llew Llaw Gyffes
5. This man translated Paul Signac’s From Delacroix to Neo-Impressionism into English. For 10 points each:
 Name this American painter of the Elegy for the Spanish Republic series.
ANSWER: Robert Motherwell
 Robert Motherwell studied at Columbia under this critic and author of The Parma Ildefonsus and Words and Pictures.
Answer: Meyer Schapiro
 Meyer Schapiro wrote a book about the unity of the art of this man, who painted portraits of Angel Fernandez de Solo and the singer Suzanne Bloch.
ANSWER: Pablo Picasso
6. This work discusses how Aristophanes's description of the titular figure demonstrated better understanding of that figure's view of titular concept than those of Plato and Xenophon. For ten points each:
 Identify this work which compares that view of the titular concept to those of contemporary philosophers.
Answers: On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates
 On the Concept of Irony was the doctoral dissertation of this Danish philosopher not named Stig Tofting. You may know him from such works as Either/Or and Fear and Trembling.
ANSWER: Soren Kierkegaard [I’m not listing all those goddamn pseudonyms]
 In his Fear and Trembling, Kierkegaard contrasts this figure to people in the aesthetic stage and a select few Knights of Faith. What differentiates this figure with the Knight of Faith is that this figure, unlike the night of faith, accepts the impossibility of attainment of some goals.
Answer: Knight of Infinite Resignation
7. The oxidoreductases PORA and PORB assemble these organelles’ prolamellar bodies, which contain inactive chlorophyll precursors. For 10 points each:
 Name these proto-chloroplasts. Cytokinin stimulates their conversion to chloroplasts upon exposure to light.
ANSWER: etioplasts [prompt on plastid, but don’t say anything about the next bonus part!]
 Etioplasts, along with chloroplasts, are a class of this general type of plant organelle, which can differentiate into any of the plant organelles that synthesize and store various sorts of pigments and nutrients. They have their own DNA and can interconvert among their types.
ANSWER: plastids [do not accept or prompt on “plasmid”]
 This device fires bullets of heavy metal coated with DNA to transform, among other things, plant plastids. Early development of this device saw the transformation of onion tissue using plastid-coated tungsten bullets.
ANSWER: gene gun [or biolistic particle delivery system]
8. Relations between the United States and Cuba got off to a bad start in the 19th century. For ten points each:
 This 1854 missive from Mason, Buchannan, and Soule to William Marcy suggested that the United States seize Cuba from Spain.
ANSWER: Ostend Manifesto
 This incident occurred in 1873when the titular ship was seized by Cuban authorities and fifty-three people including American and British citizens were executed. It ended with the Spanish government paying $80,000.
ANSWER: Virginius Affair
 John R. Brooke was replaced as military governor of the Cuba by this man who oversaw the election of Tomas Estrada Palma as Cuba’s first president.
ANSWER: Leonard Wood
9. Identify these works and authors of Indian origin who have won the Booker Prize, for ten points each.
 Composed of letters written by a man named Balram to Chinese preimer Wen Jiabao, this novel won the 2008 Booker for its author Aravind Adiga.
ANSWER: The White Tiger
 Two years before Adiga won his prize, this other Indian-born novelist won for her story about Jemubhai Popatlal and his granddaughter Sai, The Inheritance of Loss.
ANSWER: Kiran Desai [prompt on just “Desai”]
 This story of the twins Rahel and Estha won the prize for Arundhati Roy and is her best-known novel.
ANSWER: The God of Small Things
10. Answer some things about the sociology of Talcott Parsons. For ten points each:
 This name refers to Parsons’ theory that social actors working within an environment that limits choices through norms and values must choose between means and ends.
ANSWER: Action frame of reference
 The action frame of reference is introduced in this work that divides the social system into the personality system, the cultural system, and the physical environment system.
ANSWER: The Structure of Social Action
 To be workable, each system in Parsonian theory must meet four ‘functional prerequisites’ known by this abbreviation.
ANSWER: AGIL Schema [accept Adaptation, Goal Attainment, Integration, Latency]
11. For ten points each, answer these questions about a ruler whose control of the Dominican Republic was known as the “Platano Curtain.”
 This man was elected president in 1930 when a rebellion toppled Horacio Vasquez's government. He later banned all other political parties, renamed Santo Domingo, the province of San Cristobal, and the country's highest mountain after himself. He also oppressed Haitians in his country.
Answer: Rafael Leonidas Trujillo
 Trujillo attempted to provoke war with Haiti, attacking the border and slaughtering thousands of Haitians, who were attempting to escape, in this incident.
Answer: Parsely Massacre
 Trujillo had a strong personal hatred of this president of Venezuela, and tried to have him overthrown multiple times, finally trying to have him murdered when he appealed to the OAS to have him thrown out.
Answer: Romulo Betancourt
12. In this story, the Cossack Platoff accompanies Emperor Alexander to see the title object which has been manufactured by Englishmen. For ten points each:
 Identify this short story, in which the gunsmiths of Tula put horseshoes on the titular beast.
ANSWER: The Steel Flea [other variants of the title: The Tale of Cross-Eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea, or The Tale of the Cross-Eyed Lefthander from Tula and the Steel Flea, or Levsha or Lefty or The Lefthander]
 “The Steel Flea,” is a short story by this Russian author, who was praised by Walter Benjamin in the essay “The Storyteller.” His other works include The Cathedral Folk and many, many short stories.
ANSWER: Nikolai Semyonovich Leskov
 In this novel by Leskov, Katerina Ismailov poisons her husband's father Boris when he hurts her lover Sergei. They later strangle her husband Zinovy, and murder Boris's nephew Fyodor. The two are then sent to Siberia.
«Lexicon of St. Thomas Aquinas» (Cathol Univers of America Washington 1947) 1185 pp de gran formato y a dos columnas y también él...