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|Mediterranean diet adequacy and anthropometrics of Madrid Community adolescents|
Authors: Zapico, A.G.1; Martínez de Quel, O. 1; Ramírez-Rico, E1; Fernández-García E.1
1Facultad de Educación, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Introduction. The Mediterranean diet has been proposed as one of the healthiest diets in the world. However a Mediterranean country like Spain has shown in the last few years one of the highest obesity percentages in children of the European Union (1, 2). The control and promotion of healthier eating habits is one of the aims of the Spanish Health Ministry (3).
Objective. Describe the nutrition preferences and anthropometrical data of the adolescent population of Madrid Community.
Methods. A representative sample of Madrid Community secondary public school students (ESO), between 12 and 16 years of age (406 boys and 408 girls), participated in the study. The adequacy to Mediterranean diet was measured with the KIDMED questionnaire (1). Height, weight, hip and waist circumferences, and tricipital and subescapular skinfolds were measured following the ISAK methodology (4) and from this data BMI (kg/m2), waist/hip ratio (WHR) and percentage body fat (%BF) (5) were calculated.
Results. A 14.5% of the subjects presented a very low quality diet, a 54.2% a diet that should improve and a 31.3% presented an optimal Mediterranean diet. This distribution was even worst for the girls group, with a 17.2% following a very low quality diet. The anthropometric data show BMI between 20.19 and 22.52 for girls and 20.58 and 23.26 for boys; the WHR for girls was between 0.74-0.76 and between 0.81-0.83 for boys; finally de %BF for girls was 24.77-27.94 and for boys 18.26-23.08. The cut point for overweight (P85 BMI) was set between 24.0 and 26.6 in boys and between 23.5 and 25.6 in girls, and for obesity (P95 BMI) at 28.5-32.2 and 25.3-36.7 respectively.
Conclusion. When comparing our data with previous studies for the Spanish population, our subjects present higher cut points for overweight and obesity (6-9). Also the nutrition data are worst than previous studies (10, 11), with boys presenting better data than girls (an inversion of the traditional situation). A deterioration tendency in food intake, sport practice, and overweight has been documented in the last 10-15 years. The situation must be analyzed in order to establish healthy habit programs that prevent this situation in future generations.
Acknowledgments: This work has been financed by the Spanish Science and Innovation Ministry - University State Secretary. I+D+I Grant. Strategic action “Sport and physical activity". Ref: DEP-2006-56121-C04-01
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Correspondence address (Presenting author):
Dr. Augusto G. Zapico
Facultad de Educación. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
C/ Rector Royo Villanova sn.