Mediterranean diet adequacy and anthropometrics of Madrid Community adolescents




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títuloMediterranean diet adequacy and anthropometrics of Madrid Community adolescents
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Mediterranean diet adequacy and anthropometrics of Madrid Community adolescents
Authors: Zapico, A.G.1; Martínez de Quel, O. 1; Ramírez-Rico, E1; Fernández-García E.1

1Facultad de Educación, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Introduction. The Mediterranean diet has been proposed as one of the healthiest diets in the world. However a Mediterranean country like Spain has shown in the last few years one of the highest obesity percentages in children of the European Union (1, 2). The control and promotion of healthier eating habits is one of the aims of the Spanish Health Ministry (3).
Objective. Describe the nutrition preferences and anthropometrical data of the adolescent population of Madrid Community.
Methods. A representative sample of Madrid Community secondary public school students (ESO), between 12 and 16 years of age (406 boys and 408 girls), participated in the study. The adequacy to Mediterranean diet was measured with the KIDMED questionnaire (1). Height, weight, hip and waist circumferences, and tricipital and subescapular skinfolds were measured following the ISAK methodology (4) and from this data BMI (kg/m2), waist/hip ratio (WHR) and percentage body fat (%BF) (5) were calculated.
Results. A 14.5% of the subjects presented a very low quality diet, a 54.2% a diet that should improve and a 31.3% presented an optimal Mediterranean diet. This distribution was even worst for the girls group, with a 17.2% following a very low quality diet. The anthropometric data show BMI between 20.19 and 22.52 for girls and 20.58 and 23.26 for boys; the WHR for girls was between 0.74-0.76 and between 0.81-0.83 for boys; finally de %BF for girls was 24.77-27.94 and for boys 18.26-23.08. The cut point for overweight (P85 BMI) was set between 24.0 and 26.6 in boys and between 23.5 and 25.6 in girls, and for obesity (P95 BMI) at 28.5-32.2 and 25.3-36.7 respectively.
Conclusion. When comparing our data with previous studies for the Spanish population, our subjects present higher cut points for overweight and obesity (6-9). Also the nutrition data are worst than previous studies (10, 11), with boys presenting better data than girls (an inversion of the traditional situation). A deterioration tendency in food intake, sport practice, and overweight has been documented in the last 10-15 years. The situation must be analyzed in order to establish healthy habit programs that prevent this situation in future generations.

Acknowledgments: This work has been financed by the Spanish Science and Innovation Ministry - University State Secretary. I+D+I Grant. Strategic action “Sport and physical activity". Ref: DEP-2006-56121-C04-01
References.

1.Serra L, Ribas L, Ngo J, Ortega R, García A. Food, youth and the Mediterranean diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents. Public Health Nutrition. 2004;7(7):931-5.

2.Serra L, Ribas L, Ngo J, Ortega R-M, Pérez C, Aranceta J. Alimentación, jóvenes y dieta mediterránea en España. Desarrollo del Kidmed, índice de calidad de la dieta mediterránea en la infancia y la adolescencia. In: Serra L, Aranceta J, editors. Alimentación infantil y juvenil Estudio Enkid. Barcelona: Masson; 2002. p. 51-9.

3.Agencia_Española_de_Seguridad_Alimentaria. Estrategia NAOS invertir la tendencia de la obesidad. Madrid: Coyman SL; 2005. 4.Marfell-Jones M, Olds T, Stewart A, Carter L. International standards for anthropometric assessment ISAK. Potchefstroom, South Africa; 2006.

5.Slaughter MH, Lohman TG, Boileau RA, Horswill CA, Stillman RJ, Van Loan MD, et al. Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum Biol. 1988 Oct;60(5):709-23.

6.Flodmark CE, Lissau I, Moreno LA, Pietrobelli A, Widhalm K. New insights into the field of children and adolescents' obesity: the European perspective. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Oct;28(10):1189-96.

7.Fifty-seventh world health assembly. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002 Contract No.: Document Number|.

8.Sobradillo B, Aguirre A, Aresti U, Bilbao A, Fernández-Ramos C, Lizárraga A, et al. Curvas y tablas de crecimiento (estudios longitudinal y transversal). In: Orbegozo FF, editor. Patrones de crecimiento y desarrollo en España Atlas de gráficas y tablas. Bilbao; 2004. p. 1-36.

9.Serra L, Ribas L, Aranceta J, Pérez C, Saavedra P, Peña L. Obesidad infantil y juvenil en España. Resultados del Estudio enkid (1998-2000). Medicina clinica. 2003;121(19):725-32.

10.Montero P. Indicateurs de qualité de l'alimentation chez les enfants l'indice Kidmed. Antropo. 2006;11:189-97.

11.Serra-Majem L, Ribas L, Perez-Rodrigo C, Garcia-Closas R, Pena-Quintana L, Aranceta J. Determinants of nutrient intake among children and adolescents: results from the enKid Study. Ann Nutr Metab. 2002;46 Suppl 1:31-8.

Correspondence address (Presenting author):

Dr. Augusto G. Zapico

Facultad de Educación. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

C/ Rector Royo Villanova sn.

28040 Madrid.

913946234

azapico@edu.ucm.es

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